The Comparison of Thoracic Kyphosis and Position ofScapula between National Freestyle and Greco – Roman Wrestlers and Non – Athletes



This research aimed to compare thoracic kyphosis, scapula position and the
strength of retractor and protractor muscles in two groups of national Greco –
Roman and freestyle wrestlers and a group of non – athletes. For this purpose, 63
individuals (21 freestyle, 21 Greco – Roman style, 21 non – athletes, mean age
24±1.8 yr, height 173±7.74 cm and weight 77±19.63 kg) participated in this study.
A flexible ruler was used to measure thoracic kyphosis (validity 0.91 in comparison
with X-ray) and a measuring tape was used to measure the distance between
inferior angles of scapulas (Kibler's method in standing position) and to measure
the strength of the muscles, technogym devices were applied (by 1RM measurement
in sitting position). To compare the thoracic kyphosis and the scapula position
among three groups, one-way ANOVA was applied. To compare the strength of the
retractor and protractor muscles between freestyle and Greco – Roman wrestlers,
independent t test was used. The results indicated that thoracic kyphosis (43.53
degrees) and the distance of scapulas (21.98 cm) were significantly higher in
freestyle wrestlers in comparison with the Greco – Roman wrestlers (kyphosis
36.38 degrees, distance of scapulas 18.21 cm) and non – athletes (kyphosis 37.44
degrees, distance of scapulas 18.90 cm) (P<0.05). Also, the retractor muscles were
significantly stronger in the Greco – Roman wrestlers (111.21 kg) in comparison
with the freestyle wrestlers (92.64 kg) (P<0.05). The results indicated that specific
exercises performed in freestyle wrestling can affect the posture of athletes and
increase their thoracic kyphosis and distance of scapulas and decrease strength of
retractors. Therefore, coaches and team physicians are highly recommended to
consider any abnormal increase in thoracic kyphosis in freestyle wrestlers and
perform the necessary correction or preventive actions if this deformity is