The Effect of 12 Weeks of Functional Training and Different Periods of Detraining on Dynamic Balance in Elderly Men

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Exercise Physiology Department, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 . PhD Student of Exercise Physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 M.Sc. of Exercise Physiology, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


Aging causes changes in the function of those physiological systems involved in body balance which is accompanied by imbalance. Therefore, it is important to perform training which leads to maintenance and improvement of balance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 weeks of functional training and different periods of detraining on neuromuscular performance and dynamic balance in healthy elderly men. 30 elderly men (mean age: 71±3.22 yr, height: 168±7.2 cm and weight: 66.8±6.6 kg) voluntarily participated in this study and randomly divided into experimental and control groups after they achieved a proper score in Berg balance scale. Experimental group performed functional training (12 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 75 minutes per session) and control group continued their daily activities. Before and after 12 weeks of training and after four, six and eight weeks of detraining, time up and go (TUG) test was conducted to assess dynamic balance. Analysis of variance with repeated measures and one-way ANOVA showed that neuromuscular performance significantly improved in functional training group after the training (P≤0.05). Also, there was a significant difference between the posttest and six and eight weeks of detraining in this group (P≤0.05). The results showed that functional training had a significant effect on neuromuscular performance in elderly men through focusing on reinforcement of strength, endurance, flexibility and balance. Also, the obtained adaptabilities persisted after four weeks of detraining. Therefore, this new low-cost model of training which improves and maintains efficiency can be useful for the elderlies.


  1. دواتگران تقی­پور، کیوان. (1384). "ترجمه و هنجاریابی نسخۀ فارسی معادل­سازی‌شدۀ مقیاس تعادلBerg  در سالمندان ایرانی" . دانشکدۀ علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی،  پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد. تهران. ص 137-122.
  2. عباسی، علی. صادقی، حیدر. برنجیان تبریزی، حسین. باقری، کامبیز. قاسمی زاد، علیرضا. (1391). "تأثیر تمرینات تعادلی در آب و بی­تمرینی بر عملکرد عصبی-عضلانی و تعادل مردان سالمند سالم". کومش. شمارۀ 13(3). ص 353-345.
  3.  غلامعلی، میثم. نورشاهی، مریم. کنشلو، سمانه. (1391). "مقایسۀ برخی شاخص­های عملکرد سیستم عصبی-عضلانی سالمندان مرد شرکت‌کننده در ورزش­های صبحگاهی و سالمندان مرد غیرفعال". پژوهش در علوم زیستی و فعالیت بدنی. شمارۀ 1(1). ص 10-1.
  4.  هافمن، جی. (1382). "اصول برنامه‌نویسی تمرین". ترجمۀ دکتر حمید آقاعلی‌نژاد، دکتر رحمن سوری. تهران، انتشارات دنیای حرکت. ص 30-25.
  5. Berg KO, Wood-Dauphinee SL, Williams JI, Maki B. (1992). "Measuring balance in the elderly: validation of an instrument". Can J Public Health. 83 Suppl 2, PP: 7-11.
  6. Cannone, Jesse. "Functional training". Retrieved 2007-08-26. Available at:
  7. Carroll TJ, Barry B, Riek S, Carson RG. (2001). "Resistance training enhances the stability of sensorimotor coordination". ProcBiol Sci. 268(1464), PP: 221-7.
  8. Carroll TJ, Riek S, Carson RG. (2001). "Neural adaptations to resistance training: implications for movement control". Sports Med. 31(12), PP: 829-40.
  9. Cromwell RL, Meyers PM, Meyers PE, Newton RA. (2007). "An effective exercise for improving balance ability in older adults". J Gerontol A BiolSci Med Sci. 62(6), PP: 641-646.
  1. Dabidiroushan V, Gaeini AA, Namvarasl N. (2007). "The effect of four weeks detraining on high sensitive C-Reactive Protein in rats". Olympic Fall. 37, PP: 61-72.
  2. Morat T, Mechling H. (2014). "The functional movement circle for older adults: feasibility and effects on physical performance". Aging Clin Exp Res. 21, PP: 1–9.
  3. Pacheco MM, Teixeira LA, Franchini E, Takito MY. (2013). "Functional vs. Strength training in adults: specific needs define the best intervention". Int J Sports Phys Ther. 8(1), PP: 34-43.
  4. Wannamethee SG, Lowe GD, Whincup PH, et al. (2002). "Physical activity and homeostatic and inflammatory variables in elderly men". Circulation. 105(15), PP: 1785-90.
  1. de Bruin ED, Murer K. (2007). "Effect of additional functional exercises on balance in elderly people". ClinRehabil. 21(2), PP: 112-121.
  2. Dehghani R, Valaei N. (2005). "Scorpion bite in Iran: Review of the literature". Feyz, Kashan University of Medical Sciences & Health Services. 9, PP: 66-84.
  3. Dodd KJ, Taylor NF, Bradley S. (2004). "Strength training for older people. In Optimizing exercise and physical activity in older people". Eds. Morris M, Schoo A. Edinburgh, Butterworth-Heinemann. Ch7, PP: 125-158.
  4. Galvao D, Taaffe D. (2005). "Resistance exercise dosage in older adults: single- versus multiset  effects on physical performance and body composition". J Am Geriatr Soc. 53(12), PP: 2090-2097.
  5. Giné-Garriga M, Guerra M, Pagès E, Manini TM, Jiménez R, Unnithan VB. (2010). "The effect of functional circuit training on physical frailty in frail older adults: a randomized controlled trial". J Aging Phys Act. 18(4), PP: 401-24.
  6. JahadianSarvestani H, BerenjeianTabrizi H, Abbasi A, Rahmanpourmoghaddam J. (2012). "The Effect of Ten Weeks Aquatic Balance Training and Functional Training on Dynamic Balance in Inactive Elder Males". Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 11 (3), PP: 296-303.
  7. Jensen JL, Marstrand PC, Nielsen JB. (2005). "Motor skill training and strength training are associated with different plastic changes in the central nervous system". J ApplPhysiol. 99(4), PP: 1558-1568.
  8. Justine M, Hamid TA, Mohan V, Jagannathan M. (2012). "Effects of Multicomponent Exercise Training on Physical Functioning among Institutionalized Elderly". ISRN Rehabilitation. PP: 1-7.
  9. Karni A, Meyer G, Jezzard P, Adams MM, Turner R, Ungerleider LG. (1995). "Functional MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticity during motor skill learning". Nature. 377(6545), PP: 155-158.
  10. King MB, Judge JO, Whipple R, Wolfson L. (2000). "Reliability and responsiveness of two physical performance measures examined in the context of a functional training intervention". Phys Ther. 80(1), PP: 8-16.
  11. Koneshlou S, Baranchi M, Amin-Aleslam N. (2012). "The Effects of Aerobic Training and Detraining on some Health Variables in Overweight Women". 1st Int. Congress on Women's Role in Society & Family's Health. P: 9.
  12. Kornatz KW, Christou EA, Enoka RM. (2005). "Practice reduces motor unit discharge variability in a hand muscle and improves manual dexterity in old adults". J Appl Physiol. 98(6), PP: 2072-80.
  13. Manini T, Marko M, VanArnam T, Cook S, Fernhall B, Burke J, Ploutz-Snyder L. (2007). "Efficacy of resistance and task-specific exercise in older adults who modify tasks of everyday life". J Gerontol A BiolSci Med Sci. 62(6), PP: 616-23.
  1. Nagai K, Yamada M, Tanaka B, Uemura K, Mori S, Aoyama T, Ichihashi N, Tsuboyama T. (2012). "Effects of Balance Training on Muscle Coactivation During Postural Control in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial". J Gerontol A BiolSci Med Sci. 67(8), PP: 882-9.
  2. New Zealand Ministry of Health.(2002). "Health of Older People Strategy: Health Sector Action to 2010 to Support Positive Ageing". Wellington: Ministry of Health Publications; 2002.
  1. Piirtola M, Era P. (2006). "Force platform measurements as predictors of falls among older people". Gerontology. 52(1), PP: 1-16.
  2. Rees S, Murphy A, Watsford M.  (2007). "Effects of vibration exercise on muscle  performance and mobility in an older population". Journal of  Aging & Physical  Activity.  15, PP: 367-381.
  3. Resende SM, Rassi CM, Viana FP. (2008). "Effects of hydrotherapy in balance and prevention of falls among elderly women". Rev Bras Fisioter. 12(1), PP: 57-63.
  4. Sacco ICN, Bavarian TA, Watari R, Suda EY, Canettieri MG, Souza LC, Oliveira MF, Santos S. (2008). "Envelhecimento, atividade física, massa corporal e arco plantar longitudinalinfluenciam no equilíbriofuncional de idosos". Rev Bras Educ Fís Espm. 22(3), PP: 183-191.
  5. Sherrington C, Whitney JC, Lord SR, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Close JCT. (2008). "Effective exercise for the prevention of falls: a systematic review and meta-analysis". J Am GeriatrSoc. 56, PP: 2234-43.
  6. Thompson CJ, Cobb KM, Blackwell J. (2007).  "Functional training improves club head speed and functional fitness in older golfers". J Strength Cond Res. 21(1), PP: 131-7.
  7. Vale RG, de Oliveira RD, Pernambuco CS, de Meneses YP, NovaesJda S, de Andrade Ade F. (2009). "Effects of muscle strength and aerobic training on basal serum levels of IGF-1 and cortisol in elderly women". Arch GerontolGeriatr. 49(3), PP: 343-347.
  8. Valkeinen H, Hakkinen A, Hannonen P, Hakkinen K, Alen M.  (2006). "Acute heavy-resistance exercise-induced pain and neuromuscular fatigue in elderly women with  fibromyalgia and  in healthy controls: effects of strength training". Arthritis Rheumlogy.  54,PP: 1334-1339.
  9. Vandervoort A.  (2002). "Aging of the human neuromuscular system". Muscle  &  Nerve,  25, PP: 17-25.
  10. Veras R. (2009). "Population aging today: demands, challenges and innovations". Rev SaudePublica. 43(3), PP: 548-54.
  1. Yim-Chiplis PK, Talbot LA. (2000). "Defining and measuring balance in adults". Biol Res Nurs. 1(4), PP: 321-31.