Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of Oslo Sport Trauma Research Center Questionnaire on Health Problems (OSTRC)

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student of Sport Injury and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Department of biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


OSTRC questionnaire on health problems has been translated to Norwegian, Danish and Swedish. Due to the lack of similar questionnaires in Iran and the necessity to use innovative and reliable tools in sport epidemiology, localization and investigation of validity and reliability of the Persian version of this questionnaire was the aim of this study. The necessary modifications were conducted and the final form of the questionnaires was prepared using translation-back-translation method. CVR and CVI methods were used to determine content validity, internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) was used to determine reliability and test-retest method was used to evaluate reliability. Kappa agreement coefficient non-parametric test was also used to assess the reliability of other items of the questionnaire. CVI results showed that all items had CVI scores greater than 0.79 (relevance 0.92, clarity 0.98, simplicity 0.99 and ambiguity 0.94). S-CVI/Ave of the questionnaire was 0.95 (0.85-1). Statistical analysis showed that first four items had internal consistency of 0.89. Kappa agreement coefficient was 0.71 to 0.81 (P=0.001). Finally, according to these findings, OSTRC questionnaire on health problems showed the emergence of a new method to record a variety of health problems in sport. So this method is reliable and valid when monitoring and recording acute injuries, chronic injuries as well as diseases in athlete population.


1. Bahr, R. and L. Engebretsen (2011). Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science, Sports Injury Prevention, John Wiley & Sons: 1.
2. Ebrahimi M. (2012) Epidemiology of Injuries in Iranian Athletes Using the Database of Sports Medicine Federation of the Islamic Republic of Iran: 21 Fields in 2011-2011 "M.Sc., Faculty of Physical Education, University of Tehran.
3. Dvorak, Jiri, Astrid Junge, Wayne Derman, and Martin Schwellnus. "Injuries and illnesses of football players during the 2010 FIFA World Cup." British journal of sports medicine 45, no. 8 (2011): 626-630
4. Engebretsen, L., Steffen, K., Alonso, J.M., Aubry, M., Dvorak, J., Junge, A., Meeuwisse, W., Mountjoy, M., Renström, P. and Wilkinson, M (2010). "Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010." British Journal of Sports Medicine 44(11): 772-780.
5. Junge, A., Engebretsen, L., Mountjoy, M. L., Alonso, J. M., Renström, P. A., Aubry, M. J., & Dvorak, J. (2009). "Sports injuries during the summer Olympic games 2008." The American journal of sports medicine 37(11): 2165-2172.
6. Langevoort, G., Myklebust, G., Dvorak, J., & Junge, A. (2007). "Handball injuries during major international tournaments." Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 17(4): 400-407.
7. Ljungqvist, A. (2008). "Sports injury prevention: a key mandate for the IOC." British Journal of Sports Medicine 42(6): 391-391.
8. Brooks, J. H. and C. W. Fuller (2006). "The influence of methodological issues on the results and conclusions from epidemiological studies of sports injuries." Sports medicine 36(6): 459-472.
9. Bahr, R. and I. Holme (2003). "Risk factors for sports injuries—a methodological approach." British Journal of Sports Medicine 37(5): 384-392.
10. Meeuwisse, W. H. (1994). "Assessing Causation in Sport Injury: A Multifactorial Model." Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 4(3): 166-170.
11. Van Mechelen, W., Hlobil, H., & Kemper, H. C.. (1992). "Incidence, severity, aetiology and prevention of sports injuries." Sports medicine 14(2): 82-99.
12. Parkkari, J., U. M. Kujala, et al. (2001). "Is it possible to prevent sports injuries?" Sports medicine 31(14): 985-995.
13. Meeuwisse, W. H. and E. J. Love (1997). "Athletic injury reporting." Sports medicine 24(3): 184-204.
14. McIntosh, A. S. (2005). "Risk compensation, motivation, injuries, and biomechanics in competitive sport." British Journal of Sports Medicine 39(1): 2-3.
15. Bahr, R. (2009). "No injuries, but plenty of pain? On the methodology for recording overuse symptoms in sports." British Journal of Sports Medicine 43(13): 966-972.
16. Clarsen, B., Myklebust, G., & Bahr, R. (2016). "Danish translation and validation of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaires on overuse injuries and health problems." Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports.
17.  Beigi, A. Mohammad Salehi, N. Flowers, Gol, MA. (2013) "Validity and Reliability of Different Tools and Their Measurement Methods in Applied Health Research". Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, 3 (12): 1170-1153.        
18. Clarsen, B., Myklebust, G., & Bahr, R.. (2013). "Development and validation of a new method for the registration of overuse injuries in sports injury epidemiology: the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) overuse injury questionnaire." British journal of sports medicine 47(8): 495-502.
19. Clarsen, B., Rønsen, O., Myklebust, G., Flørenes, T. W., & Bahr, R.. (2013). "The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center questionnaire on health problems: a new approach to prospective monitoring of illness and injury in elite athletes." British journal of sports medicine: bjsports-2012-092087.
20. Hirschmüller, A., K. Steffen, K. Fassbender, B. Clarsen, R. Leonhard, L. Konstantinidis, N. Südkamp, and E. Kubosch, German translation and content validation of the OSTRC Questionnaire on overuse injuries and health problems. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2016: p. bjsports-2016-096669.
21.Ekman, E., Frohm, A., Ek, P., Hagberg, J., Wirén, C., & Heijne, A. (2015). "Swedish translation and validation of a web-based questionnaire for registration of overuse problems." Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 25(1): 104-109.
22. Bullinger, M., J. Alonso, et al. (1998). "Translating health status questionnaires and evaluating their quality: the IQOLA project approach." Journal of clinical epidemiology 51(11): 913-923.
23. Lawshe, C. H. (1975). "A quantitative approach to content validity1." Personnel psychology 28(4): 563-575.
24. Polit, D. F., Beck, C. T., & Owen, S. V.. (2007). "Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations." Research in nursing & health 30(4): 459-467.
25. Cook, D. A. and T. J. Beckman (2006). "Current concepts in validity and reliability for psychometric instruments: theory and application." The American journal of medicine 119(2): 166. e167-166. e116.
26. Walter, S. D., Eliasziw, M., & Donner, A. (1998). "Sample size and optimal designs for reliability studies." Statistics in medicine 17(1): 101-110.
27. Polit, D. F. (2014). "Getting serious about test–retest reliability: a critique of retest research and some recommendations." Quality of Life Research 23(6): 1713-1720.
28. Clarsen, B., R. Bahr, M. W. Heymans, M. Engedahl, G. Midtsundstad, L. Rosenlund, G. Thorsen, and G. Myklebust.. (2015). "The prevalence and impact of overuse injuries in five Norwegian sports: application of a new surveillance method." Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 25(3): 323-330.
29. Soligard, T., Steffen, K., Palmer-Green, D., Aubry, M., Grant, M.E., Meeuwisse, W., Mountjoy, M., Budgett, R. and Engebretsen, L.. (2015). "Sports injuries and illnesses in the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games." British journal of sports medicine 49(7): 441-447.
30. Palmer-Green, D. and N. Elliott (2014). "Sports Injury and Illness Epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games." British journal of sports medicine: bjsports-2014-094206.
31. Draugalis, J. R., Coons, S. J., & Plaza, C. M. (2008). "Best practices for survey research reports: a synopsis for authors and reviewers." American journal of pharmaceutical education 72(1): 11.
32. Fuller, C.W., Ekstrand, J., Junge, A., Andersen, T.E., Bahr, R., Dvorak, J., Hägglund, M., McCrory, P. and Meeuwisse, W.H. (2006). "Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures in studies of football (soccer) injuries." Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 16(2): 83-92.