The Effect of 8 Weeks of Selected Exercises on Strength of the Hip Abductor Muscles and Balance in Healthy Elderly Women

Document Type: Research Paper



Decreased postural balance and control in the elderly cause unpleasant complications such as falling and hip fracture. Given the importance of balance and strength in the elderly's health, the aim of study was the effect of 8 weeks of selected exercises on strength of the hip abductor muscles and balance in the healthy elderly women. In this semi-experimental study, 50 elderly women (mean age 59.04±2.1 yr, weight 60.93±6.5 kg and height 152.45±2.28 cm) participated voluntarily. Static and dynamic balance and strength of the hip abductor musculature of participants were measured by tests of one leg standing time (OLST) (static balance), timed get up and go (TUG) (dynamic balance) and digital dynamometer device (strength of the hip abductor muscles) before and after 8 weeks of selected exercises. The descriptive statistics were used to calculate the mean and standard deviation of data and independent and dependent t test were applied to determine the difference between pretest and posttest scores of inter-groups and intra-groups at P≤0.05. Results showed that 8 weeks of selected exercises increased strength of the hip abductor muscles and improved static and dynamic balance of the elderly women. These findings emphasized the role of selected therapeutic exercises in improving static and dynamic balance of the elderly and also the existence of a relationship between strength of hip abductor muscles and static and dynamic balance of healthy elderly women.


منابع و مآخذ                                                                                                                                  
1. Akbari M, Mosavi Khatir R. (2010). "Relationship between lower limb muscles with age in the health womans. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences''. Course of the twentieth,:N(78).pp:12-19. (Persian)
2. Akuthota V, Ferreiro A, Moore T, Fredericson M. (2008). "Core stability exercise principles. Current sports medicine reports", 7(1):39-44.
3. Aslankhani, M. A., Shams, A., Shamsipour Dehkordi, P. (2007). "Comparison of mental exercises, physical and combined static and dynamic balance in healthy elderly" . Iranian Journal of Salmand ; 9 and 10.pp: 19-28.
4. Beissner KL, Collins JE, Holmes H.(2000). " Muscle force and range of motion as predictors of function in older adults". Physical Therapy,80(6):556-63.
5. Bellew, J.W., Moore, R., Loren, D. (2003). "Effect of a short term balance training program on healthy older people". J Geriart Phys Ther, 28.pp:4-8.
6. Bernier JN, Perrin DH. (1998). "Effect of coordination training on proprioception of the functionally unstable ankle". Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 27(4):264-75.
7. de Bruin ED, Murer K. (2007). "Effect of additional functional exercises on balance in elderly people". Clinical rehabilitation. ,21(2):112-21.
8. Guyton A. (1991). "Textbook of medical physiology". Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, PP:106-14.
9. Hahn T, Foldspang A, Vestergaard E, Ingemann‐Hansen T.(1999). " Oneleg standing balance and sports activity". Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports,9(1):15-8.
10. Heyward, H.V. (1997). "Advanced Fitness Assessment Exercise Prescription". Human Kinetics. Journal of Physical; pp: 83-91.
11. Hinman MR. (2000). " Factors affecting reliability of the Biodex Balance System a summary of four studies". Journal of Sport Rehabilitation,9(3):240-52.
12. Horak F, Nashner L, Diener H. (1990). "Postural strategies associated with somatosensory and vestibular loss". Experimental Brain Research, 82(1):167-77.
13. Hubbard TJ, Kramer LC, Denegar CR, Hertel J. (2007). " Correlations among multiple measures of functional and mechanical instability in subjects with chronic ankle instability". Journal of athletic training, 42(3):361.
14. Ireland ML, Willson JD, Ballantyne BT, Davis IM.(2003)."Hip strength in females with and without patellofemoral pain". Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 33(11), PP:671-6.
15. Iwamoto M. (2009)."The relationship among hip abductor strength, dynamic balance, and functional balance ability".California University of Pennsylvania, 30(8), PP:48-50.
16. Judge, J.O., Lindsey C, Underwood M, Winsemiuse D. (1993). "Balance improvement in older women:Effect of exercise training". Phys Ther, 73,PP: 274- 275.
17. Khodadad H. )2005). "Sport Traumatology". Second edition.Tehran.Book Bamdad Publications, PP:224-232.
18. Khosravi J, et al. (2007)."Four-year health status for older workers employed in the field of urban services and green spaces Tehran Municipality in 2002-2005". Journal of health aging, 2.PP:67-88.
19. Langley F, Mackintosh SF. (2007). "Functional balance assessment of older community dwelling adults: asystematic review of the literature". Nova Southeastern University, PP:350-5.
20. Lee D-K, Kim G-M, Ha S-M, Oh J-S. (2014). "Correlation of the Y-Balance Test with Lower-limb Strength of Adult Women". Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(5), PP:641-3.
21. Lopes K, Costa D, Santos L, Castro D, Bastone A. (2009). "Prevalence of fear of falling among a population of older adults and its correlation with mobility,dynamic balance, risk and history of falls". Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy,13(3), PP:223-9.
22. Lord SR, Clark RD, Webster IW. (1991)."Physiological factors associated with falls in an elderly population". Journal of the American Geriatrics Society,PP:90-97.
23. MacCulloch PA, Gardner T, Bonner A. (2007)."Comprehensive fall prevention programs across settings: a review of the literature". Geriatric Nursing, 28(5), PP:306-11.
24. Madureira MM, Takayama L, Gallinaro A, Caparbo V, Costa R, Pereira RM. (2007). "Balance training program is highly effective in improving functional status and reducing the risk of falls in elderly women withosteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial". Osteoporosis International,18(4), PP:419-25.
25. Mahdavi nejad R,Mashhadi M, Baqerian S. (2013). "Advanced Corrective Exercises (Basic concepts and specialized)". (Discovering Print).Esfahan Univercity, PP:90-97.
26. Melzer I, Benjuya N, Kaplanski J. (2004)."Postural stability in the elderly: a comparison between fallers and non-fallers". Age and ageing, 33(6), PP:602-7.
27. Manini T, Marko M, VanArnam T, Cook S, Fernhall B, Burke J, et al. (2007). "Efficacy of resistance and task-specific exercise in older adults who modify tasks of everyday life". The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 62(6), PP:616-23.
28. Nadler SF, Malanga GA, DePrince M, Stitik TP,Feinberg JH. (2000). "The relationship between lower extremity injury, low back pain, and hip muscle strength in male and female collegiate athletes". Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 10(2), PP:89-97.
29. Nitz, J.C., Choy, N.L. (2004). "The efficacy of a specific balance- strategy training program for preventing falls among older: a pilot randomized controlled trial". J Age and Aging, 33, PP: 52-58.
30. Pendergast DR, Fisher NM, Calkins E. (1993)."Cardiovascular, Neuromuscular, and Metabolic Alterations With Age Leading to Frailty". Journal of Gerontology, (Special Issue), 48,PP:61-7.
31. Resende S, Rassi C. (2008 ). "Effects of hydrotherapy in balance and prevention of falls among elderly women". Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 12(1), PP:57-63
32. Rosendahl E. (2006). " Fall prediction and a high-intensity functional exercise programme to improve physical functions and to prevent falls among olderpeople living in residential care facilities". Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 16(4), PP:323-328.
33. Salamat newspaper. (2007). Available at:
34. Seco J, Abecia LC, Echevarría E, Barbero I, Torres‐Unda J, Rodriguez V, et al. (2013). " A longtermphysical activity training program increases strength and flexibility, and improves balance in older adults". Rehabilitation Nursing, 38(1), PP: 37-47.
35. Shumway-Cook, A., Gruber, W., Baldwin, M., Liao, S. (1997). "The effect of multidimensional exercises on balance, mobility, and fall risk in community-dwelling older adults". Phys there, PP: 7746-57.
36. Spiriduso W. (1995)." Physical dimention of aging. Champaign, Illinoise". Human Kinetics, PP:501–506.
37. Stevens JA. (2005). "Falls among older adultsrisk factors and prevention strategies". Journal of safety research, 36(4), PP:409-11.
38. Trudelle-Jackson EJ, Jackson AW, Morrow J. (2006). "Muscle strength and postural stability in healthy, older women: implications for fall prevention". Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 3(3), PP:292.