عنوان مقاله [English]
Lateral ankle sprain is the most common ligament injury in athletes and functional instability is one of the disabling consequences of the ankle sprain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of six weeks of supervised neuromuscular training on joint position sense and lower extremity function in athletes with functional ankle instability. 28 male athletes suffering from functional instability voluntary participated in this study and randomly divided into a training group (n=14) and a control group (n=14). Lower extremity function was measured using Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and FAAM Sport and joint position sense was measured by Ankle Proprioception Goniometer. The data analysis showed had a significant improvement in average absolute error of the reproduction of ankle joint angle in inversion in the experimental group compared with the control group (P<0.05). Also, the training subjects showed a significant improvement in the scores of FAAM and FAAM Sport compared with the control group (P<0.01). Six weeks of progressive supervised neuromuscular training with wobble board and rocker board significantly improved lower extremity function and joint position sense in athletes with functional ankle instability.
1. Bouët, V. and Y. Gahery. (2000)."Muscular exercise improves knee position sense in humans". Neuroscience letters. 289(2): p. 143-146.
2. Bowker, S., et al. (2016)."Neural Excitability and Joint Laxity in Chronic Ankle Instability, Coper, and Control Groups". Journal of athletic training. 51(4): p. 336-343.
3. Boyle, J. and V. Negus. (1998)."Joint position sense in the recurrently sprained ankle". Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 44(3): p. 159-163.
4. Brooks, S., B. Potter, and J. Rainey. (1981)."Treatment for partial tears of the lateral ligament of the ankle: a prospective trial". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 282(6264): p. 606-607.
5. Clark, F., R. Burgess, J.W. Chapin, and W. Lipscomb. (1985)."Role of intramuscular receptors in the awareness of limb position". Journal of Neurophysiology. 54(6): p. 1529-1540.
6. Clark, V.M. and A.M. Burden. (2005)."A 4-week wobble board exercise programme improved muscle onset latency and perceived stability in individuals with a functionally unstable ankle". Physical therapy in sport. 6(4): p. 181-187.
7. Cohen, J. (1992)."Statistical power analysis". Current directions in psychological science. 1(3): p. 98-101.
8. Cordova, M.L., C.D. Ingersoll, and R.M. Palmieri. (2002)."Efficacy of prophylactic ankle support: an experimental perspective". Journal of Athletic Training. 37(4): p. 446.
9. Coughlan, G. and B. Caulfield. (2007)."A 4-week neuromuscular training program and gait patterns at the ankle joint". Journal of athletic training. 42(1): p. 51.
10. de Vries, J.S., R. Krips, I.N. Sierevelt, L. Blankevoort, and C. van Dijk. (2011)."Interventions for treating chronic ankle instability". The Cochrane Library.
11. de Vries, J.S., R. Krips, I.N. Sierevelt, L. Blankevoort, and C. van Dijk. (2011)."Interventions for treating chronic ankle instability". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 8.
12. Devanne, H. and B. Maton. (1998)."Role of proprioceptive information in the temporal coordination between joints". Experimental brain research. 119(1): p. 58-64.
13. Docherty, C.L., J.H. Moore, and B.L. Arnold. (1998)."Effects of strength training on strength development and joint position sense in functionally unstable ankles". Journal of athletic training. 33(4): p. 310.
14. Fitzgerald, D., N. Trakarnratanakul, B. Smyth, and B. Caulfield. (2010)."Effects of a wobble board-based therapeutic exergaming system for balance training on dynamic postural stability and intrinsic motivation levels". J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 40(1): p. 11-9.
15. Gabriel, D.A., G. Kamen, and G. Frost. (2006)."Neural adaptations to resistive exercise". Sports Medicine. 36(2): p. 133-149.
16. Gerber, J.P., G.N. Williams, C.R. Scoville, R.A. Arciero, and D.C. Taylor. (1998)."Persistent disability associated with ankle sprains: a prospective examination of an athletic population". Foot & Ankle International. 19(10): p. 653-660.
17. Hale, S.A., J. Hertel, and L.C. Olmsted-Kramer. (2007)."The effect of a 4-week comprehensive rehabilitation program on postural control and lower extremity function in individuals with chronic ankle instability". journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy. 37(6): p. 303-311.
18. Handoll, H.H., B.H. Rowe, K.M. Quinn, and R. de Bie. (2011)."Interventions for preventing ankle ligament injuries". The Cochrane Library.
19. Heitkamp, H.-C., T. Horstmann, F. Mayer, J. Weller, and H.-H. Dickhuth. (2001)."Gain in strength and muscular balance after balance training". International Journal of Sports Medicine. 22(04): p. 285-290.
20. Hertel, J. (2002)."Functional anatomy, pathomechanics, and pathophysiology of lateral ankle instability". Journal of athletic training. 37(4): p. 364.
21. Kaminski, T.W. and T.M. Gerlach. (2001)."The effect of tape and neoprene ankle supports on ankle joint position sense". Physical Therapy in Sport. 2(3): p. 132-140.
22. Konradsen, L. and P. Magnusson. (2000)."Increased inversion angle replication error in functional ankle instability". Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 8(4): p. 246-251.
23. Konradsen, L., J. Ravn, and A. Sorensen. (1993)."Proprioception at the ankle: the effect of anaesthetic blockade of ligament receptors". Bone & Joint Journal. 75(3): p. 433-436.
24. Lephart, S.M., D.M. Pincivero, J.L. Giraido, and F.H. Fu. (1997)."The role of proprioception in the management and rehabilitation of athletic injuries". The American journal of sports medicine. 25(1): p. 130-137.
25. Martin, R.L., J.J. Irrgang, R.G. Burdett, S.F. Conti, and J.M. Van Swearingen. (2005)."Evidence of validity for the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM)". Foot & Ankle International. 26(11): p. 968-983.
26. Mazaheri, M., et al. (2010)."Reliability and validity of the Persian version of foot and ankle ability measure (FAAM) to measure functional limitations in patients with foot and ankle disorders". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 18(6): p. 755.
27. McKeon, P.O. and J. Hertel. (2008)."Systematic review of postural control and lateral ankle instability, part II: is balance training clinically effective?". Journal of athletic training. 43(3): p. 305-315.
28. McKeon, P.O., et al. (2008)."Balance training improves function and postural control in those with chronic ankle instability". Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 40(10): p. 1810.
29. Mirbagheri, M., H. Barbeau, and R. Kearney. (2000)."Intrinsic and reflex contributions to human ankle stiffness: variation with activation level and position". Experimental Brain Research. 135(4): p. 423-436.
30. O'Driscoll, J., F. Kerin, and E. Delahunt. (2011)."Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: a case report". BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation. 3(1): p. 1.
31. Olmsted, L.C., C.R. Carcia, J. Hertel, and S.J. Shultz. (2002)."Efficacy of the star excursion balance tests in detecting reach deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability". Journal of athletic training. 37(4): p. 501.
32. Payne, K.A., K. Berg, and R.W. Latin. (1997)."Ankle injuries and ankle strength, flexibility, and proprioception in college basketball players". Journal of athletic training. 32(3): p. 221.
33. Rajabi, R. and M. Karimizadeh Ardakani. (2013)."Construction and Reliability study of the Iranian New Device for Measuring Ankle Proprioceptive". Studies in Sport Medicine. 12: p. 43-52. (In Persian).
34. Refshauge, K.M., S.L. Kilbreath, and J. Raymond. (2000)."The effect of recurrent ankle inversion sprain and taping on proprioception at the ankle". Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 32(1): p. 10-15.
35. Richie, D.H. (2001)."Functional instability of the ankle and the role of neuromuscular control: a comprehensive review". The journal of foot and ankle surgery. 40(4): p. 240-251.
36. Rosenbaum, D., H.P. Becker, H. Gerngross, and L. Claes. (2000)."Peroneal reaction times for diagnosis of functional ankle instability". Foot and ankle surgery. 6(1): p. 31-38.
37. Rozzi, S.L., S.M. Lephart, R. Sterner, and L. Kuligowski. (1999)."Balance training for persons with functionally unstable ankles". Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 29(8): p. 478-486.
38. Samadi, H., The effect of neuromuscular training on electromyographic parameters of selective calf muscles in male athletes with functional ankle instability, in Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences. 2013, University of Tehran. p. 67-87. (In Persian).
39. Sammarco, G.J., "Rehabilitation of the foot and ankle". 1995: Mosby Incorporated.
40. Sekir, U., Y. Yildiz, B. Hazneci, F. Ors, and T. Aydin. (2007)."Effect of isokinetic training on strength, functionality and proprioception in athletes with functional ankle instability". Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy. 15(5): p. 654-664.
41. Spanos, S., M. Brunswic, and E. Billis. (2008)."The effect of taping on the proprioception of the ankle in a non-weight bearing position, amongst injured athletes". The foot. 18(1): p. 25-33.
42. van der Wees, P.J., et al. (2006)."Effectiveness of exercise therapy and manual mobilisation in acute ankle sprain and functional instability: a systematic review". Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 52(1): p. 27-37.
43. Van Deursen, R.W.M., M.M. Sanchez, J.S. Ulbrecht, and P. Cavanagh. (1998)."The role of muscle spindles in ankle movement perception in human subjects with diabetic neuropathy". Experimental brain research. 120(1): p. 1-8.
44. Webster, K.A. and P.A. Gribble. (2010)."Functional rehabilitation interventions for chronic ankle instability: a systematic review". J Sport Rehabil. 19(1): p. 98-114.
45. Wester, J.U., S.M. Jespersen, K.D. Nielsen, and L. Neumann. (1996)."Wobble board training after partial sprains of the lateral ligaments of the ankle: a prospective randomized study". J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 23(5): p. 332-6.
46. Wilkerson, G.B. and A.J. Nitz. (2010)."Dynamic ankle stability: mechanical and neuromuscular interrelationships". JSR. 3(1).
47. Willems, T., E. Witvrouw, J. Verstuyft, P. Vaes, and D. De Clercq. (2002)."Proprioception and muscle strength in subjects with a history of ankle sprains and chronic instability". Journal of athletic training. 37(4): p. 487.