The Effect of Functional Fatigue on Pattern and Onset of Electromyography Activation of Selective Lumbo-Pelvic and Peroneal Muscles in Elite Female Taekwondo Athletes

Document Type: Research Paper


1 MCs of Sport Injury and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Fatigue causes afferent feedback disorder, muscle timing disorder and injury in organs. In this study, the effect of a functional fatigue protocol on pattern and onset of electromyography activity of selective lumbo-pelvic and peroneal muscles. 13 healthy female taekwondo athletes (mean age 20.92±1.25 years, weight 53.69±4.17 kg, height 166.92±5.00 m and activity experience 7.92±1.75 years) took part voluntary in this study. Firstly, the onset of EMG activity of erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, gluteus medius and peroneus lunges muscles was recorded during single leg jump-landing. Then, subjects participated in the fatigue protocol and EMG activity of muscles was recorded again. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in onset of muscle activity in pretest and posttest (P≤0.0005), but this pattern showed no significant differences in pretest and posttest. Paired t test showed a faster onset of each four muscles after fatigue; that was significant in quadratus lumborum, gluteus medius and peroneus lunges. But it was not significant in erector spine. As a result, central nervous system is more sensitive in fatigue condition when it predicts more injury risk and employs muscles sooner so that it can protect joints in high-risk conditions. So it attempts to recall motor strategies to prevent probable injuries sooner.


  1. ممشلی، عقیل (1391). مقایسۀ زمان‌بندی عضلات هسته و پرونئال حین تکلیف فرود آمدن در افراد سالم و بیماران مبتلا به بی‌ثباتی عملکردی مچ پا، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد فیزیوتراپی، دانشکدۀ توانبخشی.
  2. میرجانی، مونا (1393). تأثیر خستگی عملکردی بر زمان‌بندی فعالیت الکترومایوگرافی عضلات کمری- لگنی و پرونئال در تکواندوکاران زن نخبه با و بدون بی‌ثباتی عملکردی مچ پا، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد دانشگاه تهران.
    1. Altarriba-Bartes, A., Drobnic, F., Til, L., Malliaropoulos, N., Montoro, J. B., & Irurtia, A. (2014). "Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study". BMJ Open, 4(2), pp: 1-8.
    2. Bisson, E. J., Chopra, S., Azzi, E., Morgan, A., & Bilodeau, M. (2010). "Acute effects of fatigue of the plantarflexor muscles on different postural tasks". Gait Posture, 32(4), pp: 482-486.
    3. Bisson, E. J., McEwen, D., Lajoie, Y., & Bilodeau, M. (2011). "Effects of ankle and hip muscle fatigue on postural sway and attentional demands during unipedal stance". Gait & posture, 33(1), pp: 83-87.
    4. Bisson, E. J., Remaud, A., Boyas, S., Lajoie, Y., & Bilodeau, M. (2012). "Effects of fatiguing isometric and isokinetic ankle exercises on postural control while standing on firm and compliant surfaces". J Neuroeng Rehabil, 9(39), pp: 1-9.
    5. Bullock-Saxton, J., Janda, V., & Bullock, M. (1994). "The influence of ankle sprain injury on muscle activation during hip extension". International journal of sports medicine, 15(06), pp: 330-334.
    6. Forestier, N., Teasdale, N., & Nougier, V. (2002). "Alteration of the position sense at the ankle induced by muscular fatigue in humans". Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 34(1), pp: 117-122.
    7. Friel, K., McLean, N., Myers, C., & Caceres, M. (2006). "Ipsilateral hip abductor weakness after inversion ankle sprain". Journal of athletic training, 41(1), pp: 74-78.
10. Granacher, U., Gruber, M., Förderer, D., Strass, D., & Gollhofer, A. (2010). "Effects of ankle fatigue on functional reflex activity during gait perturbations in young and elderly men". Gait & posture, 32(1), pp: 107-112.
11. Gribble, P. A., & Hertel, J. (2004). "Effect of lower-extremity muscle fatigue on postural control". Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 85(4), pp: 589-592.
12. Gribble, P. A., Hertel, J., Denegar, C. R., & Buckley, W. E. (2004). "The effects of fatigue and chronic ankle instability on dynamic postural control". Journal of athletic training, 39(4), pp: 321-329.
13. Gutierrez, G. M., Jackson, N. D., Dorr, K. A., Margiotta, S. E., & Kaminski, T. W. (2007). "Effect of fatigue on neuromuscular function at the ankle". J Sport Rehabil, 16(4), pp: 295-306.
14. Gutierrez, G. M., Knight, C. A., Swanik, C. B., Royer, T., Manal, K., Caulfield, B., & Kaminski, T. W. (2012). "Examining neuromuscular control during landings on a supinating platform in persons with and without ankle instability". The American journal of sports medicine, 40(1), pp: 193-201.
15. Haddas, R., James, C. R., & Hooper, T. L. (2015). "Lower Extremity Fatigue, Sex, and Landing Performance in a Population With Recurrent Low Back Pain". Journal of athletic training, 50(4), pp: 378-384.
16. Hammer, W. (2007). "Core Stability Relates to Distal Segments". dynamic chiropractic, 25(19), pp: 1-3.
17. Hart, J. M., Kerrigan, D. C., Fritz, J. M., & Ingersoll, C. D. (2009). "Jogging kinematics after lumbar paraspinal muscle fatigue". J Athl Train, 44(5), pp: 475-481.
18. Hass, C. J., Bishop, M. D., Doidge, D., & Wikstrom, E. A. (2010). "Chronic ankle instability alters central organization of movement". The American journal of sports medicine, 38(4), pp: 829-834.
19. Helbostad, J. L., Sturnieks, D. L., Menant, J., Delbaere, K., Lord, S. R., & Pijnappels, M. (2010). "Consequences of lower extremity and trunk muscle fatigue on balance and functional tasks in older people: a systematic literature review". BMC Geriatr, 10(56), pp: 1-8.
20. Hoozemans, M. A. M. M. J., Sabine, P. S. M. R. M., Verschueren, S., van Dieën, J., & Pijnappels, M. (2015). "Effects of hip abductor muscle fatigue on gait control and hip position sense in healthy older adults". Gait Posture, 42(4), pp: 545-9.
21. Hosseinimehr, S. H., Daneshmandi, H., & Norasteh, A. A. (2010). "The effects of fatigue and chronic ankle instability on dynamic postural control". Physics International, 1(1), pp: 22-26.
22. Jackson, N. D. (2006). The effects of fatigue reaction time during sudden ankle inversion (Honcrs Bachelor), University of Delaware.
23. Jackson, N. D., Gutierrez, G. M., & Kaminski, T. (2009). "The effect of fatigue and habituation on the stretch reflex of the ankle musculature". Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 19(1), pp: 75-84.
24. Jamison, S. T., McNally, M. P., Schmitt, L. C., & Chaudhari, A. M. (2013). "The effects of core muscle activation on dynamic trunk position and knee abduction moments: implications for ACL injury". Journal of Biomechanics, 46(13), pp: 2236-2241.
25. Ji, M. (2016). :Analysis of injuries in taekwondo athletes:. Journal of physical therapy science, 28(1), pp: 231-234.
26. Kennedy, A. C. (2013). "Impact of neuromuscular fatigue on the postural response to externally initiated, predictable postural perturbations". (Doctor of Philosophy), Université de Nantes.
27. Klykken, L. W., Pietrosimone, B. G., Kim, K.-M., Ingersoll, C. D., & Hertel, J. (2011). "Motor-neuron pool excitability of the lower leg muscles after acute lateral ankle sprain". Journal of athletic training, 46(3), pp: 263-369.
28. Knight, A. C., & Weimar, W. H. (2011). "Difference in response latency of the peroneus longus between the dominant and nondominant legs". Journal of sport rehabilitation, 20(3), pp: 321-332.
29. Konrad, P. (2006). "The abc of emg". A practical introduction to kinesiological electromyography, Version 1, 1-61.
30. McMullen, K. L., Cosby, N. L., Hertel, J., Ingersoll, C. D., & Hart, J. M. (2011). "Lower extremity neuromuscular control immediately after fatiguing hip-abduction exercise". Journal of athletic training, 46(6), pp: 607-614.
31. Pieter, W., Fife, G. P., & O'Sullivan, D. M.(2012). "Competition injuries in taekwondo: a literature review and suggestions for prevention and surveillance". Br J Sports Med, 46(7), pp: 485-491.
32. Silva, B. A. R. S., Martinez, F. G., Pacheco, A. M., & Pacheco, I. (2006). "Effects of the exercise-induced muscular fatigue on the time of muscular reaction of the fibularis in healthy individuals". Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 12(2), pp: 85-89.
33. Suda, E. Y., Amorim, C. F., & de Camargo Neves Sacco, I. (2009). "Influence of ankle functional instability on the ankle electromyography during landing after volleyball blocking". Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 19(2), pp: 84-93.
34. Suponitsky, Y., Verbitsky, O., Peled, E., & Mizrahi, J. (2008). "Effect of selective fatiguing of the shank muscles on single-leg-standing sway". Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 18(4), pp: 682-689.
35. Taylor, J. L., & Gandevia, S. C. (2008). "A comparison of central aspects of fatigue in submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions". J Appl Physiol (1985), 104(2), pp: 542-550.
36. Vuillerme, N., Anziani, B., & Rougier, P. (2007). "Trunk extensor muscles fatigue affects undisturbed postural control in young healthy adults". Clinical Biomechanics, 22(5), pp: 489-494.
37. Weeks, B. K., Carty, C. P., & Horan, S. A. (2015). "Effect of sex and fatigue on single leg squat kinematics in healthy young adults". BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 16(1), pp: 1-9.
38. Willson, J. D., Dougherty, C. P., Ireland, M. L., & Davis, I. M. (2005). "Core stability and its relationship to lower extremity function and injury". Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 13(5), pp: 316-325.
39. Wilson, E. L., Madigan, M. L., Davidson, B. S., & Nussbaum, M. A. (2006). "Postural strategy changes with fatigue of the lumbar extensor muscles". Gait & posture, 23(3), pp: 348-354.
40. Zahran, A. S., & ElSeoufy, A. A.-M. (2010). "Biomechanic's Determinants of the Trunk Front Semi-Circular Kick (Dollyo Chagi) in Tae-Kwon-Do". World J Sport Sci, 3, 921-929.