عنوان مقاله [English]
Flat foot transfers a chain effect on the joints and upper segments and leads to disruption of kinetic chain.. Researches suggest that the use of foot orthoses may change muscle activation patterns of people with flat foot during walking and running activities to people with normal-arched feet but to date there are not studies on the effect of foot orthoses in neuromuscular control of athletes with flat foot deformity in sport tasks. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity of muscles around the ankle joint in athletes with flat foot in the foot orthoses compared to the situation without foot orthoses, while single-leg jump-landing task is done. In this study of 15 athletes with flat foot deformity 18 to 23 years were selected purposively as the sample. EMG activity of four muscles (tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, medial gastrocnemius and soleus) during single leg jump-landing was registered in two situation with and without foot orthoses. The results showed significant differences in the feedforward activity of the tibialis anterior muscle (p = 0/002) and peroneus longus (p = 0/045) and in the feedback activity of the tibialis anterior muscle (p = 0/049), peroneus longus (p = 0/042), medial gastrocnemius (p = 0/015) and soleus (p = 0/005) between tow situations with and without the foot orthoses. Foot orthoses with changes in neuromuscular function of tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles may reduce the risk of injuries and disorders of the kinetic chain.
1. Banwell H, S Mackintosh, D Thewlis. "Foot orthoses for adults with flexible pes planus". Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. 2014.
2 Caulfield B, M Garrett. "Changes in ground reaction force during jump landing in Subjects with functional instability of the ankle joint". Clinical biomechanics. 2004; 19: 617-21.
3. Caulfield BM, T Crammond, A O’Sullivan, S Reynolds, T Ward. "Altered ankle-muscle activation during jump landing in participants with functional instability of the ankle joint". Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 2004; 13(3): 189 – 200.
4. Chen YC, SZ Lou, CY Huang, FC Su. "Effects of foot orthoses on gait patterns of flat feet patients". Clinical Biomechanics. 2010; 25: 265-70.
5. Clark MA, SC Lucett, BG Sutton. "NASM's essentials of corrective exercise training ". 1st ed ed. United States: Burlington, MA : Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2011. 438 p.
6. Cote KP, ME Brunet, BM Gansneder, SJ Shultz. "Effects of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability". Journal of Athletic Training. 2005; 40(1): 41-6.
7. Duval K, T Lam, D Sanderson. "The mechanical relationship between the rearfoot, pelvis and low-back". Gait & posture. 2010; 32(4): 637-40.
8. EILS E, R SCHROTER, M SCHRODER, J GERSS, D ROSENBAUM. "Multistation Proprioceptive Exercise Program Prevents Ankle Injuries in Basketball". MEDICINE & SCIENCE IN SPORTS & EXERCISE. 2010; 42(11): 2098-105.
9. Grillner S. "The role of muscle stiffness in meeting the changing postural and locomotor requirements for force development by the ankle extensors". Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 1972; 86(1): 92-108.
10. Hermens HJ, B Freriks, C Disselhorst-Klug, G Rau. "Development of recommendations for SEMG sensors and sensor placement procedures". Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2000; 10: 361-74.
11. Hsu JD, JW Michael, JR Fisk. "AAOS Atlas of Orthoses and Assistive Devices". Fourth Edition ed2008.
12. Konrad P. "The ABC of EMG, A Practical Introduction to Kinesiological Electromyography". USA: Noraxon INC; 2006.
13. Mandelbaum BR, HJ Silvers, DS Watanabe, JF Knarr, SD Thomas, LY Griffin, et al. "Effectiveness of a neuromuscular and proprioceptive training program in preventing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes: 2-year follow-up". Am J Sports Med.2005;33(7):1003-10.
14. McPoil TG, GC Hunt. "Evaluation and management of foot and ankle disorders: present problems and future directions". Journal of Orthopaedics and Sports Physical Therapy. 1995; 21: 381-8.
15. Murley GS, AR Bird. "The effect of three levels of orthotic wedging on the surface electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait". Clinical Biomechanics. 2006; 21: 1074-80.
16. Murley GS, HB Menz, KB Landorf, AR Bird. "Effect of foot posture, foot orthoses and footwear on lower limb muscle activityduring walking and running". Gait & Posture. 2008; 29: 172-87.
17. Murley GS, KB Landorf, HB Menz. "Do foot orthoses change lower limb muscle activity in flat-arched feet towards a pattern observed in normal-arched feet". Clinical Biomechanics. 2010; 25: 728-36.
18. Oatis CA. "Kinesiology, The Mechanics & Pathomechanics of Human Movement". 2nd, editor. Phyladelphia: Pennsylvania2009.
19. Page P, C Frank, R Lardner. "Assessment and Treatment of Muscle Imbalance The Janda Approach". USA: Human Kinetics; 2010
20. Pinto RZ, TR Souza, RG Trede, RN Kirkwood, EM Figueiredo, ST Fonseca. "Bilateral and unilateral increases in calcaneal eversion affect pelvic alignment in standing position". Manual therapy. 2008; 13:(6): 513-9.
21. Riemann BL, SM Lephart. "The sensorimotor system, part II: the role of proprioception in motor control and functional joint stability..". Journal of Athletic Training. 2002; 37 (1): 80.
22. Rome K, CL Brown. "Randomized clinical trial into the impact of rigid foot orthoses on balance parameters in excessively pronated feet". Clinical Rehabillitation. 2004; 18(6): 624-30.
23. Sahrmann S. "Diagnosis and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes". USA: Mosby; 2002.
24. Sahrmann S, Associates. "Movement System Impairment Syndromes of the Extremities, Cervical and Thoracic Spines". USA: Mosby; 2011.
25. Sambit M, KK Kukkar, AS Aruin. "Support surface related changes in feedforward and feedback control of standing posture". Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2014; 24: 144-52.
26. Santello M. "Review of motor control mechanisms underlying impact absorption from falls". Gait & posture. 2005; 21(1): 85-94.
27. Santello M, McDonagh MJN. "The control of timing and amplitude of emg activity in landing movements in humans". Experimental Physiology. 1998; 83: 857-74.
28. Scott G, HB Menz, L Newcombe. "Age-related differences in foot structure and function". Gait and Posture. 2007; 26: 68-75.
29. Silvers HJ, B Mandelbaum. "ACL injury prevention in athlete". Journal of Sport Orthotrauma. 2011; 27: 18-26.
30. Staheli LT, DE Chew, M Corbett. "The longitudinal arch. A survey of eight hundred and eighty-two feet in normal children and adults". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1987; 69: 426-8.
31. Suda EY, CF Amorim, I de Camargo Neves Sacco. "Influence of ankle functional instability on the ankle electromyography during landing after volleyball blocking". Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2009; 19(2): e84-e93.
32. Wikstrom EA, MD Tillman, SM Schenker, PA Borsa."Failed jump landing trials: deficits in neuromuscular control". Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 2007; 18(1): 55-61.
33. Yoo K Tae. "Comparative Analysis of Maximum Vertical Reaction Force and Lower Limbs on Drop Landing between Normal and Flat Foot Group". Journal of International Academy of Physical Therapy Research. 2011; 2(1): 222-8.
34. Zifchock RA, I Davis. "A comparison of semi-custom and custom foot orthotic devices in high- and low-arched individuals during walking". Clinical Biomechanics. 2008; 23: 1287-93.