The Relationship between Y Test Results and Pressure Distribution System In Estimating Dynamic Balance of Those with Different Foot Arch Heights

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc, Department of Corrective Exercises and Sport Injury, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Corrective Exercises and Sport Injury, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Since sole is the lowest part of body motor chain and provides little space of reliance for balance, it seems logical that biomechanical changes in the reliance area can affect balance control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Y test results and sole pressure distribution system in evaluating dynamic balance of people with different foot arch heights. 80 qualified subjects in the form of those with natural soles (n=28), increased internal and longitudinal arch (n=25), and decreased internal and longitudinal arch (n=27) were selected as the sample of the study. Navicular drop test was used to identify foot form and Y balance test and pressure distribution system were simultaneously used to estimate dynamic balance. Data were analyzed statistically by Pearson correlation coefficient test after descriptive examination at P≤0.05. Results showed a positive and significant relationship between Y test results and pressure distribution system in evaluating dynamic balance of those subjects with different foot arch heights (P=0.002), r=0.337). There was no significant relationship among those subjects with increased pronation (P=0.493, r=0.138), increased supination (P=0.218, r=0.255) and natural sole (P=0.06, r=0.349). Therefore, Y test may not be accurate enough to evaluate dynamic balance in those with different foot arch heights and it is better for those studies whose main aim is to evaluate dynamic balance to use more sensitive tests.


  1. Bazvand M, Mosavi S, Mi'mar R, Sadeghi H. Dynamic Postural Comparison during Gait Analysis in Men with Pes Cavus and Pes Planus. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2014; 24(116): p. 161-171 [In Persian].
  2. Khanmohammadi F, Ghasemi M2, Jafari H, Hajiaghaie B, Sanjari MA. The effect of poron layered insole on ground reaction force in comparison with common insole on subjects with flexible flat foot. Journal of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2012; 4(5) : p. 57-63 [In Persian].
  3. Reisi J, Alizade MH, Comparison of standing balance between active and Pasive people with pes planus and normal foot[MSC]. Ann Arbor. University of Tehran 2008. [In Persian].
  4. Shahheydari S, NorasteAA. Mohebi H, Saki F. Relationship between leg muscle strength, endurance of trunk muscle endurance, lower extremity motion range and anthropometric anthropometric characteristics with balance in athlete's women. Journal of Sport Medicine. 2011; 1(3): p. 5-23 [In Persian].
  5. Ghasemi paiendehi V. Comparison of dynamic alance in male with different foot types and its’ relationship with foot morphological and anatomical characteristics[MSC]. Ann Arbor. University of Tehran 2009 [In Persian].
  6. Kordi Ashkezari MH. Effect of the Medial Longitudinal Arch Height of the Foot on Static and Dynamic Balance of Male Collegiate Athletes[MSC]. Ann Arbor. University of Tehran 2014 [In Persian].
  7.  Musavi S,  Ghasemi B;  Faramarzi M. The Relationship between Internal Longitudinal Foot Arch with Static and Dynamic Balance of 12-14 years Male Students. Journal of Sport Medicine. 2009; 1(2): p. 107-231 [In Persian].
  8. Bouillon, L.E. and J.L. Baker, Dynamic balance differences as measured by the star excursion balance test between adult-aged and middle-aged women. Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 2011. 3(5): p. 466-469.
  9. Bowers, D.M. and M.M. Lusardi, Motor Learning and Motor Control in Orthotic and Prosthetic Rehabilitation. Faculty Publications, 2007.
  10. Bressel, E., J.C. Yonker, J. Kras and E.M. Heath, Comparison of static and dynamic balance in female collegiate soccer, basketball, and gymnastics athletes. Journal of athletic training, 2007. 42(1): p. 42.
  11. Brody, D., Techniques in the evaluation and treatment of the injured runner. The orthopedic clinics of north America, 1982. 13(3): p. 541-558.
  12. Cote, K.P., M.E. Brunet, B.M.G. II and S.J. Shultz, Effects of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability. Journal of athletic training, 2005. 40(1): p. 41.
  13. Coughlan, G.F., K. Fullam, E. Delahunt, C. Gissane and B.M. Caulfield, A comparison between performance on selected directions of the star excursion balance test and the Y balance test. Journal of athletic training, 2012. 47(4): p. 366.
  14. Dabholkar, A., A. Shah and S. Yardi, Comparison of dynamic balance between flat feet and normal individuals using Star Excursion Balance Test. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy-An International Journal, 2012. 6(3): p. 27-31.
  15. Filipa, A., R. Byrnes, M.V. Paterno, G.D. Myer and T.E. Hewett, Neuromuscular training improves performance on the star excursion balance test in young female athletes. Journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, 2010. 40(9): p. 551-558.
  16. Greve, J., A. Alonso, A.C.P. Bordini and G.L. Camanho, Correlation between body mass index and postural balance. Clinics, 2007. 62(6): p. 717-720.
  17. Gribble, P.A. and J. Hertel, Considerations for normalizing measures of the Star Excursion Balance Test. Measurement in physical education and exercise science, 2003. 7(2): p. 89-100
  18. Gribble, P.A., J. Hertel and P. Plisky, Using the Star Excursion Balance Test to assess dynamic postural-control deficits and outcomes in lower extremity injury: a literature and systematic review. Journal of athletic training, 2012. 47(3): p. 339-357.
  19. Gribble, P.A., J. Hertel, C.R. Denegar and W.E. Buckley, The effects of fatigue and chronic ankle instability on dynamic postural control. Journal of Athletic Training, 2004. 39(4): p. 321.
  20. Hannigan-Downs, K., R. Harter and G. Smith, Radiographic validation and reliability of selected clinical measures of pronation. J Ath Tr, 2000. 35: p. 12-30.
  21. Harrison, P.-L. and C. Littlewood, Relationship between pes planus foot type and postural stability. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, 2010. 4(3): p. 21-4.
  22. Hertel, J., M.R. Gay and C.R. Denegar, Differences in postural control during single-leg stance among healthy individuals with different foot types. Journal of athletic training, 2002. 37(2): p. 129.
  23. Jonsson, E., Effects of healthy aging on balance: A quantitative analysis of clinical tests. 2006: Institutionen for klinisk neurovetenskap, arbetsterapi och äldrevårdsforskning (NEUROTEC)/Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Occupational Therapy and Elderly Care Research (NEUROTEC).
  24. Khamis, S. and Z. Yizhar, Effect of feet hyperpronation on pelvic alignment in a standing position. Gait & posture, 2007. 25(1): p. 127-134.
  25. Kim, J.-a., O.-b. Lim and C.-h. Yi, Difference in static and dynamic stability between flexible flatfeet and neutral feet. Gait & posture, 2015. 41(2): p. 546-550.
  26. Lynn, S.K., R.A. Padilla and K.K. Tsang, Differences in static-and dynamic-balance task performance after 4 weeks of intrinsic-foot-muscle training: the short-foot exercise versus the towel-curl exercise. Journal of sport rehabilitation, 2012. 21(4): p. 327.
  27. Matsuda, S., S. Demura and M. Uchiyama, Centre of pressure sway characteristics during static one-legged stance of athletes from different sports. Journal of sports sciences, 2008. 26(7): p. 775-779.
  28. McGill, S.M., A. Childs and C. Liebenson, Endurance times for low back stabilization exercises: clinical targets for testing and training from a normal database. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 1999. 80(8): p. 941-944.
  29. Mecagni, C., J.P. Smith, K.E. Roberts and S.B. O'Sullivan, Balance and ankle range of motion in community-dwelling women aged 64 to 87 years: a correlational study. Physical Therapy, 2000. 80(10): p. 1004-1011.
  30. Nakagawa, L. and M. Hoffman, Performance in static, dynamic, and clinical tests of postural control in individuals with recurrent ankle sprains. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 2004. 13(3): p. 255-268.
  31. Olmsted, L.C., C.R. Carcia, J. Hertel and S.J. Shultz, Efficacy of the Star Excursion Balance Tests in detecting reach deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability. Journal of athletic training, 2002. 37(4): p. 501.
  32. Pashnameh, A., R. Mirnasouri and M. Nikravan, Relationship between genu valgum, genu varum and flat food Deformities with Static and Dynamic Balance in Female Students of Dorud Islamic Azad University. Asian Journal Of Multidisciplinary Studies, 2014. 2 (2).
  33.  Plisky, P.J., M.J. Rauh, T.W. Kaminski and F.B. Underwood, Star Excursion Balance Test as a predictor of lower extremity injury in high school basketball players. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2006. 36(12): p. 911-919.
  34. Punakallio, A., Balance abilities of workers in physically demanding jobs: With special reference to firefighters of different ages. 2005: National Emergency Training Center.
  35. Riemann, B.L., J.B. Myers and S.M. Lephart, Sensorimotor system measurement techniques. Journal of athletic training, 2002. 37(1): p. 85.
  36. Sabin, M.J., Reliability and Validity of the Condition-Modified Star Excursion Balance Test: Influence of Concussion History. 2011, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  37. Saki, F., R. Rajabi and F. Tabatabaei, Relationship between Hip and Knee Strength and Knee Valgus Angle during Drop Jump in Elite Female Athletes. Physical Treatments-Specific Physical Therapy Journal, 2014. 4(1): p. 39-46.
  38. Samaei, A., A. Bakhtiary, F. Elham and A. Rezasoltani, Effects of genu varum deformity on postural stability. International journal of sports medicine, 2012. 33(6): p. 469
  39. Sell, K.E., T.M. Verity, T.W. Worrell, B.J. Pease and J. Wigglesworth, Two measurement techniques for assessing subtalar joint position: a reliability study. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 1994. 19(3): p. 162-167.
  40. Shumway-Cook, A. and M. Woollacott, Motor control: theory and practical applicationsLippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2001, Philadelphia.
  41. Tsai, L.-C., B. Yu, V.S. Mercer and M.T. Gross, Comparison of different structural foot types for measures of standing postural control. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2006. 36(12): p. 942-953.
  42. Udermann, B.E., J.M. Mayer, J.E. Graves and S.R. Murray, Quantitative assessment of lumbar paraspinal muscle endurance. Journal of Athletic Training, 2003. 38(3): p. 259.